Helping struggling readers
Six programs to help young children who are struggling to read are reviewed and conclusions drawn about the components of effective reading programs for these children. United States
The importance of the first year of school
Most children define themselves as good or poor readers in their first year of school. Teachers need to integrate research-based instructional practices into their daily work to support young children to become confident and competent readers. United States
Learning to read - why some children struggle?
Limited experience with books, speech and hearing problems, and low phonemic awareness are some reasons why children may struggle with reading. For many children, specific decoding, word recognition, and reading comprehension skills must be taught directly and systematically. United States
Struggling readers - Using texts they can and want to read
Giving struggling readers books and other texts they can and want to read is important in helping them to read. Non-fiction books, newspapers, magazines and even comic books can also encourage young children into reading. United States
Developing phonological and phonemic awareness
Phonological awareness and phonemic awareness are often less well developed in struggling readers. Young children, parents and teachers can all do things that will help to develop phonemic awareness and phonological awareness. United States
Letter-sound relationships - Decoding and phonics
Understanding (decoding) letter-sound relationships gives children the ability to recognize familiar words quickly and to figure out words they haven't seen before Phonics is one approach to teach children about letter-sound relationships. Most children benefit from explicit instruction in this area. United States
Vocabulary and reader comprehension
Vocabulary plays a fundamental role in the reading process, and contributes greatly to a reader's comprehension. Children learn the meanings of most words through everyday experiences with oral and written language. Other words are learned through carefully designed instruction. United States
Fluency is important for motivation
Fluency, the ability to read with speed, accuracy, and proper expression, is important for motivation; children who find reading laborious tend not to want read! Children must be able to read fluently to understand what they read. United States
Comprehension - thinking and reasoning
Comprehension involves combining reading with thinking and reasoning. Children have strong comprehension when they are able to draw conclusions about what they read - what is important, what is a fact, which characters are funny, what caused an event to happen. United States
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